Modern surgery has developed to such an extent that the body of knowledge and technical skills required have led to surgeons specializing in particular areas, usually an anatomical area of the body or occasionally in a particular technique or type of patient.
- Hydrocoele (water on the testis)
- Removal of the prostate, kidney or bladder for cancer
- Removal of kidney for stone or infection
- Diversion of urine into a stoma (ileal conduit or bag)
- Reconstruction of the bladder following its removal
- Reconstruction of the urethra (water passage) after damage (urethroplasty)
Urology was the first branch of surgery to use endoscopic and key-hole techniques and remains the greatest user of minimally-invasive techniques.
Urology is at the forefront of the development of robotic surgery for removal of the prostate and other urological operations.